ANCIENT ART

The earliest form of ancient Mongolian works of art represents simplified, stylized animal figures and symbols, painted by prehistoric nomads on the walls of the caves they inhabited. Such figures were typically painted using reddish-brown ochre, or engraved on the rock face using sharpened tools. As human civilization developed, so too did their artistic skill, which gradually became increasingly more detailed and intricate. The first artwork you can see in this room is a copy from the walls of a cave called Xoid Tsenxer (Xovd aimag, Manxan cym). The original drawing was made 40-12 thousands years ago in the Early Stone Age. It is painted with reddish brown ochre and you can see animal figures on it.

        The use of metal became widespread during the Bronze Age (2000 BC) with the discovery that smelting copper and tin produces the resilient alloy "bronze". Bronze decorative objects featuring animal figures became widespread throughout the region during this period.

        Amongst the artwork produced in Central Asia during the Bronze Age, the `deer stone` monuments are of particular significance and cultural value. These monuments came to be used by different Mongolian empires. They created unique designs on the monuments as a means of establishing their individual territories.

-            Deer stones (2000 BC): These stones were made after someone died. You can find animals like horses, pigs, leopard, wild goat, fish carved onto these monuments as well as weapons.

-            Türk monuments (6-8th centuries): Famous monuments include the Kültegin stele, you can find it in Arkhangai aimag and the Tonjukuk stele in Töv aimag, Bayanzurx sum. Vladimirtsov, Russian scholar did research in Xentii and found Turk monuments in 1925. In 1958-59 the escavations started in Xoshoo valley. The museum has in its collection a piece from the escavation that is part of a door from the city wall.

-            Uigur (745-840): The Uigur Khaganate stretched from the Caspian Sea to Manchuria and lasted from AD 745 to 840. It was administered from the imperial capital Ordu-Baliq, one of the biggest ancient cities built in Mongolia. In AD 840, following a famine and civil war, the Uigur Khaganate was overrun by the Kirghiz, another Turkic people. As a result the majority of tribal groups formerly under Uigur control migrated to what is now northwestern China, especially to the modern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region. They were those who provided the writing system to the old Mongolian writing. The Uigur writing derives from the Sogd writing.

SECURITY AT MUSEUMS

МУЗЕЙН АЮУЛГҮЙ БАЙДАЛ

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The Trainer’s Manual - Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook

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Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook

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ГАМШГИЙН ЭРСДЛИЙН МЕНЕЖМЕНТ БА МУЗЕЙ

DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT FOR MUSEUMS

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DOCUMENTATION OF ARTEFACTS’ COLLECTIONS

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CARE HANDLING OF MANUSCRIPTS

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